The interpretation of Early Music. New revised edition.
Estados Unidos, 1963, 1965, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1989, 1992. 776 pp. Encuadernación rústica. Idioma: inglés.

ROBERT DONINGTON: The interpretation of Early Music. New revised edition.





INTRODUCTION: New Thinking on Early Interpretation:


            Our Changing Attitude


            A Literary Reincarnation


            The Changing Environment of Early Interpretation


            The Construction and Function of this Present Book


            How Controversial is Early Interpretation?


            The Introductory Chapters: Another Kind of Controversy?


            The Select Bibliography


            The Complementary Function of the Smaller Book


            Prospects for Authenticity


            Two Underlying Assumptions Reconsidered


            The Assumption Concerning Historical Authenticity


            The Assumption Concerning Necessary Compromise


            Authenticity and Personality


            Morality or Artistry?


            A Topical Issue of Principle


            A Blend of Personalities


            Early Music in the Here and Now


            Authenticity in Early Opera


            Early Opera an Extreme though not a Special Case


            Combining Musicianship and Musicology


            The Musicological Contribution


            Flexibility a Part of Authenticity


            Keeping Within the Implications of the Music


            Past and Present


            A Problem of Projection


            Bringing out the Tragic Implications


            The Robust Aspect of Baroque Opera


            The Continuo Accompaniment


            Different Varieties of Continuo Accompaniment


            What to Give to the Continuo Instruments


            Present and Future


            Responding to the Timeless Essence


            Bodying Out the Music


            Two Working Rules for Congruous Realisation


            The Shape of Things to Come





            The Approach to Early Music


            Preview of and `Early' Style


            The Element of Passion in Early Music


            The Element of Serenity in Early Music


            Reconciling the Passion with the Serenity


            The Interplay of Styles


            A Basic Baroque Problem


            The Factor of Date


            The Factor of Nationality: Main Currents


            The Factor of Nationality: Musical Effects


            The Factor of Purpose Cutting Across both Time and Place


            The Galant Style


            The Transition to the Classical Period


            Music as Expression


            The Theory of Affects


            The Factor of Technique


            Differences of Amateur Standard


            Differences of Professional Standard


            The Factor of Taste






            Accidentals in Early Music


            Mode and Key


            Musica Ficta---`Feigned Music'


            The Hexachord


            Unfamiliar Chromatic Signs


            Unfamiliar Modal Signatures


            Unfamiliar Key Signatures


            Written and Unwritten Accidentals


            Interpreting Written Accidentals


            Early Accidentals Apply Basically to Single Notes


            Effect of the Bar-line on Accidentals


            Effect of the Hexachord on Accidentals


            Effect of Repetition on Accidentals


            Accidentals Sometimes Retrospective


            Accidentals in Figured Bass


            Adding Unwritten Accidentals


            Unwritten Accidentals for Necessity and Beauty


            Correcting Imperfect Intervals


            The Diminished or Augmented Octave Clash


            The Picardy Third


            The Leading-note Principle


            The Leading-note Itself


            The `Double Leading-note'


            The `Landini Cadence'


            Sharp Mediants Assumed Next to Sharp Leading-notes


            Accidentals Suggested by the Performer's Taste


            Different `Musica Ficta' Shown in Different Tablatures of the Same Piece





            The Place of Embellishment


            The Performer's Share in the Figuration


            The Primary Argument about Embellishment Itself


            The Secondary Argument about Performer's Embellishments


            All Ornamental Figuration to be Taken Lightly


            Effect of Omitting Obligatory Ornamentation


            Some Early Terms for Embellishment


            Solution of Ex. 20


            Sixteenth-Century Ornamentation


            Sixteenth-Century Ornamentation a Melodic Art


            Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries


            The Later Sixteenth Century


            Ornamenting Polyphonic Works Today


            Early Baroque Ornamentation


            Early Baroque Ornamentation Still Mainly Melodic


            Vocal Ornamentation in Early Baroque Music


            Instrumental Ornamentation in Early Baroque Music


            Later Baroque Ornamentation


            Later Baroque Ornamentation Harmonic as well as Melodic


            Vocal Ornamentation in Later Baroque Music


            Instrumental Ornamentation in Later Baroque Music


            Concerted Ornamentation in Chamber and Orchestral Music


            National Differences in Embellishment


            General Advice


            Post-Baroque Ornamentation


            The Declining Importance of Free Ornamentation


            The Cadenza


            The Typical Baroque Cadenza an Elaboration of a Close


            The Later Cadenza Part of the Structure of the Movement


            Entire Movements Replaced by Cadenza-like Improvisation


            The Style of Baroque Cadenzas




            The Proliferation of Ornaments in Baroque Music


            Some Working Rules for Baroque Ornaments


            Three Primary Functions Served by Baroque Ornaments


            The Main Baroque Ornaments Grouped by Families


            A (i): The Appoggiatura Proper


            What the Name Appoggiatura Implies


            The Movement of Appoggiaturas


            All true Appoggiaturas take the Beat


            All true Appoggiaturas are Joined to the Ensuing but not to the Previous Note


            The Early Baroque Appoggiatura


            The Long Appoggiatura


            The Function of the Long Appoggiatura Primarily Harmonic


            The Short Appoggiatura


            Where to Introduce Unwritten Appoggiaturas


            Appoggiaturas in Recitative


            The Post-Baroque Appoggiatura


            A (ii): The Double Appoggiatura


            What the Name Double Appoggiatura Implies


            Varieties of Double Appoggiatura


            The Post-Baroque Double Appoggiatura


            A (iii): The Slide


            What the Name Slide Implies


            Varieties of Slide


            Post-Baroque Slides


            A (iv): The Acciaccatura


            What the Name Acciaccatura Implies


            The Simultaneous Acciaccatura


            The Passing Acciaccatura


            The Post-Baroque Acciaccatura


            A (v): The Passing Appoggiatura


            What the Name Passing Appoggiatura Implies


            Evidence for the Passing Appoggiatura


            Opposition to the Passing Appoggiatura


            B (i): Tremolo and B (ii): Vibrato


            What the Names Tremolo and Vibrato Imply


            The Vocal Tremolo


            Instrumental Tremolo


            Vibrato on Instruments


            B (iii): The Trill


            What the Name Trill Implies


            Pre-Baroque and Early Baroque Trills


            Baroque Trills of the Main Period


            The Preparation of Baroque Trills


            The Speed of Baroque Trills


            The Termination of Baroque Trills


            The So-called `Corelli Clash' Resolved by the Conventional Trill?




            Continuous Trills


            The Ribattuta


            The Post-Baroque Trill


            B (iv): The Mordent


            What the Name Mordent Implies


            Single, Double and Continued Mordents


            The Inverted Mordent


            The Position of Mordents


            Pre-Baroque Mordents


            Baroque Mordents


            Diatonic and Chromatic Mordents


            The Preparation of Mordents


            The Speed of Mordents


            The Termination of Mordents


            The Post-Baroque Mordent


            C (i): Passing Notes and C (ii): Changing Notes


            Which Ornaments are here Classed as Passing Notes


            The Passing Note Proper


            The Tirata


            Which Ornaments are here Classed as Changing Notes


            The Note of Anticipation


            The Springer


            The Groppo


            Post-Baroque Passing and Changing Notes


            C (iii): The Turn


            What the Name Turn Implies


            The Accented Turn


            The Unaccented Turn


            Interpretation of Turns


            C (iv): Broken Chords, C (v): Broken Notes and C (vi): Broken Time


            In What Respect the Broken Chord is an Ornament


            The Origins of the Broken Chord in Pre-Baroque Music


            The Broken Chord as an Ornament in Baroque Music


            The Broken Chord in Post-Baroque Music


            The Broken Note Treated as an Ornament


            Broken Time Treated as an Ornament


            D. Compound Ornaments


            What is Meant by the Term Compound Ornament


            Combinations with the Appoggiatura


            Combinations with the Trill or Turn





            Figured Bass


            Impromptu Accompaniment


            The General Character of Figured Bass


            The Figuring


            Unfigured Basses


            The Signs Used in Figured Bass


            The Position of the Figures


            Perfect Triads (Common Chords)


            Diminished Triads


            Augmented Triads


            Six-Three Chords (Chords of the Sixth)


            Six-Four Chords


            Chords of the Augmented Sixth


            Chords of the Seventh


            Six-Five Chords


            Four-Three Chords


            Four-Two Chords


            `Passing Notes' in the Bass


            Going Beyond the Figures


            What the Figures Show


            Departing from the Figures


            Departing from the Bass


            Accommodating Harmonic Ornaments


            Adding Accented and Unaccented Passing Notes


            The Texture of the Part


            The Importance of Texture in a Good Accompaniment


            No Accompaniment (`Senza Cembalo', etc.)


            Unharmonised Accompaniment (`Tasto Solo'; `All' unisono')


            How Thick the Accompaniment Should Be


            How Strict the Accompaniment Should Be


            The Filled-in Accompaniment


            How the Accompaniment Should be Spaced


            How High and How Low the Accompaniment Should Go


            Texture Further to be Considered in the following Chapter


            The Structure of the Part


            The Structural Aspect of the Accompaniment


            How Smooth the Accompaniment Should Be


            How the Smooth Accompaniment may be Broken


            The Broken Accompaniment in Recitative


            How Far the Accompaniment Should Double the Existing Melody


            How Far the Accompaniment Should Possess an Independent Melodic Interest


            How Contrapuntal the Accompaniment Should Be


            Instruments of Accompaniment


            Early Baroque Instruments of Accompaniment


            Supporting the Harmonic Accompaniment with a Melodic Bass Instrument


            Gamba or Cello


            Adding a Double-bass


            Other Effects of Sharing Responsibility for the Accompaniment


            The Choice of Harmonic Instrument


            The Good Accompanist


            What Makes a Good Accompanist


            Accompanying Recitative


            Accompaniment as Composition




            Expression in Early Music


            Expression a Spontaneous Impulse


            Repeats and Omissions


            Repeats and Omissions within the Performer's Option


            Regular Repeat Signs a Baroque Development


            Repeats in Dances


            Repeats in Sectional Music


            Varied Repeats


            Omitting Movements or Sections





            Tempo in Early Music


            Tempo a Variable Quantity


            Early Tempos Only to be Judged by Good Musicianship


            J. S. Bach's Tempos




            Time-Words Imply Both Mood and Tempo


            Early Baroque Time-Words


            Later Baroque Time-Words


            Metronome Equivalents for Time-Words


            Dance Tempos


            Dance-Titles as Guides to Tempo


            The Almain (Allemande, etc.)


            The Ayre


            The Brawl (Branle, Brando, etc.)


            The Bourree


            The Canaries


            The Courante (Coranto, etc.)


            The Chaconne


            The Entree


            The Fury


            The Galliard (Saltarello, Cinq-pas, etc.)


            The Gavotte


            The Hornpipe


            The Jig (Gigue, etc.)


            The Loure


            The March


            The Minuet


            The Musette


            The Passacaille (Passacaglia)


            The Passepied (Paspy)


            The Pavan


            The Rigaudon (Rigadoon)


            The Rondeau (Rondo)


            The Saraband


            The Tambourin


            The Volta


            Metronome Equivalents for Dance Tempos




            Origin of Our Time-Signatures in Proportional Notation


            The Fundamental Confusion between Measure and Tempo


            The Subsidiary Confusion over Time-Signatures in the Form of Fractions


            Contradictory Uses of C and ¢, etc.


            Time-Signatures in Triple Time


            Discrepant Time-Signatures


            Concurrent Time-Signatures


            Baroque Time-Signatures in Practice




            Pulse Not Deliberately Made Audible


            The Four-time Pulse and the Two-time Pulse


            The Terms `Alla Breve' and `Alla Capella', etc.


            The `Alla Breve' in Practice


            The Hemiola


            Variations of Tempo


            The Need for Expressive Flexibility in Baroque Tempo


            Flexibility of Tempo in Unmeasured and Measured Preludes


            Flexibility of Tempo in the Monodic Style, etc.


            Flexibility of Tempo in Recitative


            Flexibility of Tempo in Baroque Music Generally


            Changes of Tempo between Sections, etc.


            Variations of Tempo within the Passage


            Borrowed Time


            Stolen Time







            Rhythm in Early Music


            Flexibility the Key to Early Rhythm


            Rhythms Left Entirely to the Performer


            Rhythms Left Partly to the Performer


            Rhythms Loosely Notated for Mere Convenience




            Methods of Showing Different Note-values in Mensural (Proportional) Notation


            Baroque and Modern Methods of Showing Different Note-values


            Arbitrary Note-values at the Ends of Phrases, etc.


            A Conventional Mis-notation in Recitative


            Dotted Notes


            The Baroque Dot a Variable Symbol


            What Baroque Notes are `Over-dotted'


            `Over-dotting' Itself Variable in Extent


            Baroque Instructions for Dotted Notes


            Dots as Silence of Articulation


            General Baroque Preference for the Variable Dot


            Post-Baroque `Over-dotting'


            Other Sharpened Rhythms


            The Piquant Contrasts of French Overture Style


            Rests Prolonged before Dotted Figures, etc.




            Inequality an Aspect of Rhythmic Freedom


            Which Notes Should be Made Unequal


            The Lilting Rhythm (Lourer)


            The Snapped Rhythm (Couler)


            Inequality in Pre-Baroque Music


            Inequality in Early Baroque Music


            Inequality in Later Baroque Music


            How Widely Ought Inequality to be Applied?


            Post-Baroque Inequality


            Triplet Rhythm


            Two Against Three not a Normal Baroque Rhythm


            Preliminary Notes in Triplet Rhythm


            The Triplet Convention in the Post-Baroque Period





            Phrasing must be Audible


            Phrasing Signs


            Phrasing Left to the Performer




            Grouping by Ligatures


            Words of Articulation


            Signs of Articulation


            Articulation Implied by Keyboard Fingering


            Articulation Implied by Bowings


            Articulation Left to the Performer


            Baroque `Ordinary Movement' Somewhat Articulate





            Fitting the Volume to the Music


            Words of Volume


            Signs of Volume


            Range and Flexibility of Early Dynamics


            Louds and Softs


            Crescendos and Diminuendos


            The `Messa di Voce'


            The Finer Shadings




            Suggestions for Balance shown in Notation


            Written Indications of Balance


            Balance Left to the Performer




            Words Suggesting Accentuation


            Accentuation Suggested by the Music


            The Agogic Accent


            The Weight Accent


            The Sforzando


            The Attack Accent



            Instruments in Early Music


            Music and its Instruments


            Substitutions Must be as Suitable as Possible


            Early Technique Should be Taken Into Account




            The Effect of Pitch on Performance


            Actual Pitch and Nominal Pitch


            Pitches in Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Music


            Pitches in Music of the Main Baroque Period


            Pitches in Post-Baroque Music


            Pitch in Practice




            Why Temperament is Necessary


            Mean-Tone Temperament


            Modifications of Mean-Tone Temperament


            Equal Temperament


            Temperament in Practice


            The Voice


            The Italian `Bel Canto'


            Early Vocal Technique


            The Trill


            The Vibrato


            The Portamento


            The Necessary Element of Chest Voice


            The Castrato Voice


            The Male Alto and the High and Low Counter-tenor


            Underlay of the Words


            A Declamatory Edge to the Articulation


            Polyphonic Music also Declamatory


            The White Voice


            The Viols


            The Family of Viols


            The Viols in Consort


            The Gamba, etc., as Soloist


            The Gamba as a Continuo Bass


            The Cellamba


            The Purpose of the Frets


            The Gamba in the Post-Baroque Period


            The Violins


            A Style of Violin-playing for Baroque Music


            The Fittings of the Baroque Violin


            The Baroque Violin Bow


            The Use of Gut Strings


            Holding the Violin, etc.


            Holding the Bow


            Left-hand Technique


            Right-hand Technique


            Chords and Polyphony on the Violin, etc.


            The Double-bass


            Plucked Instruments


            The Lute


            The Vihuela


            The Guitar


            The Cittern


            The Harp


            The Wind Department


            The Changed Character of Many Wind Instruments


            How Efficient are Early Wind Instruments?






            Early Wind Instruments in Practice




            Embouchure and Fipple


            Transverse Flutes


            The Recorders


            Pipe and Tabor




            The Influence of Reeds and Bore


            The Shawms


            The Oboe


            The Bassoon


            The Crumhorn (Cromorne)


            The Clarinet




            Brass Cylindrical and Conical, Narrow and Broad


            The Cornetto


            The Serpent


            The Bugles (Tubas, etc.)


            The Horn


            The Trombone


            The Trumpet




            Military, Dance and Orchestral Percussion


            The Kettledrum for Orchestral Music


            The Tabor, etc., for Dancing


            Turkish Music: The Triangle, Cymbals, etc.




            The Harpsichord


            The Clavichord


            The Piano


            The Organ




            Choirs and Orchestras


            Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Ensembles


            The Standard Baroque Foundation of Strings


            The Unstandardised Wind


            The Indispensable Continuo


            The Conductor


            Some Typical Baroque Choirs and Orchestras


            Acknowledgements and Conclusion


            Previous Acknowledgements


            Present Acknowledgements





            I. Ligatures


            II. Figured Bass: Three Realisations


            III. Ornamentation


            IV. Orchestral Improvisation


            V. Responsibility for Accidentals


            1. Accidentals Still a Baroque Problem


            2. Hexachordally Prospective Accidentals


            3. Retrospective Accidentals


            4. Changing Conventions for Later Baroque Accidentals


            5. Accidentals in Modern Editions


            6. A Retrospective Late-Comer


            VI. New Thinking on Ornaments


            1. Frederick Neumann's Contribution


            2. Obligatory Ornaments Never Anticipate the Beat


            3. The Appoggiatura by Definition and Function Accented


            4. The Cadential Trill Likewise Defined as Accented


            5. The Preparation of the Baroque Trill


            6. Tosi, Galliard and Agricola on the Baroque Trill


            7. Jean Rousseau and the French Vocal School on the Baroque Trill


            8. The Upper-Note Habit in Late Baroque Trills


            9. The Hard Core of Baroque Ornaments Relatively Simple


            10. How Grammatical have Baroque Ornaments to Be?


            11. When Consecutive Parallel Fifths are Correct


            12. Ornaments Not to be Falsified for the Sake of Grammatical Correctness


            13. Clashes of Ornaments to be Taken Boldly


            14. Doing the Obvious Thing with Ornaments


            VII. Tempo and Rhythm


            1. Flexibility in Declamatory Styles


            2. Time-Signatures in French Recitative


            3. Tactus as Duration and Metre as Rhythm


            4. Black and White Notations as Remnants of Coloration


            5. Telescoped Cadences in Recitative


            VIII. A Footnote to Inequality


            IX. Ornamentation in the Reciting Style


Select Bibliography

Index of Ornaments (Signs)

General Index