Performance practices in Classic piano music.. Their principles and applications.
Indiana University Press, 1988. 544 pp. Encuadernación rústica.
Foreword BY Malcolm Bilson Preface, About Performance Practices Acknowledgments Sources OF Figures Introduction, Using This Book Abbreviations I. Background for The Study Point of View Invention and Gradual Acceptance of The Piano The Musical Need Cristoforios Invention The Pianoos Ultimate Triumph Some Influences on Performance Music and Rhetoric Empfindsamkeit (sensibility) Sturm und Drang (storm and Stress) Haydn and Mozart Beethoven and The Rhetorical Spirit Beyond Beethoven The Musical Score Changes in The Classic Era More-recent Developments The Composers and Their Pianism Haydn Mozart Clementi Beethoven Czernyos Observations on Beethoven Performance II. The Fortepiano Circa 1780-1820 General Characteristics of Construction Expansion of Keyboard Compass and Instrument Size Changes in Range and Construction Beethovenos Extension of Range The Problem of Onote Restorationo Tone and Touch Omutationso, Hand Stops, Levers, and Pedals English Versus Viennese Fortepianos Actions and Sounds Attempts to Modify The Viennese Action Four Classic Composers and Their Fortepianos Composer-performers and Piano Makers Haydn, Mozart, and Clementi Beethoven Instruments Played for This Study Viennese Instruments German Instruments English Instruments Personal Observations Iii. Dynamics and Accentuation Playing Classic Period Music on a Modern Grand Piano Notation and Interpretation of Dynamic Indications Introduction Orientation to Composerso Notation and Unfamiliar Terms The Scope of Forte and Piano Concinnity of Dynamics and Form Filling in The Missing Dynamics Terraced and Graduated Dynamics Repeats Repeats in Sonata-allegro Form Inner Repeats in The Minuet or Scherzo Da Capo Evolution of Calando and Related Terms Origin, Use by Haydn and Mozart Clementios Definition and Usage Use of Calando by Beethoven, Hummel, and Czerny Qualitative (dynamic) Accents Indications for Accents Composerso Uses of Accent Indications Rinforzando Types of Accentuation Accentuation in Beethovenos Music, The Annotations to Crameros Etudes The Annotations to Etudes IX and XII Schindler and Beethoven An Assessment of The Annotations to Crameros Etudes IV. Use of The Pedals The Damper Pedal, Introduction Types of Pedaling Rhythmic Pedaling Syncopated or Legato Pedaling Stylistic Use of The Damper Pedal Contemporary Descriptions and Uses Planning Appropriate Pedaling The Development of Pedal Indications and Their Ambiguities England and France Germany and Austria Special Effects by Beethoven, Dussek, Clementi, and Others Indications That Create Distinctive Timbres Indications That Highlight Form The Omoonlighto Sonata Adjusting Early Pedal Indications to The Pianoforte The Una Corda Pedal V. Articulation and Touch Introduction Nonlegato, Legato, and The Prolonged Touch Nonlegato, Tenuto, and The Heavy and Light Execution A Shift Toward More Legato Legato and Legatissimo Touches Described in Tutors The Prolonged Touch The Language of The Slur The Expressivity of Short Slurs Longer Legato Goups and Slurs Do All Slurs Indicate Attack and Release? Dot, Stroke and Wedge VI. Historical Technique and Fingering Point of View Specific Functions of Technique Role and Position of The Arm and Hand Finger Technique How to Practice Staccato Touches Playing The Incise Slur Repeated Notes, Octaves, and Glissandos Summary Increasing Technical Demands Clementios Introduction and Gradus Beethovenos Exercises and Other Fragments Fingerings by Clementi and Beethoven Vii. Ornaments Introduction Appoggiaturas and Other One-note Ornaments Identification The Short Appoggiatura The Long Appoggiatura Afternotes and Grace Notes Afternote and Anticipatory Performance of Other Short Ornaments The Trill Overview Evolution of The Trill Start The Trill Start in Works of Haydn, Mozart, and Their Contemporaries The Trill Start in Works of Beethoven The Short Trill and The Schneller The Mordent The Turn and The Oquicko Turn Haydnos Notation of Turns and Mordents Interpretation of Haydnos Turn Oover The Doto Early and Anticipatory Turn Realization Beethovenos Ambiguous Placement of The Turn Sign The Inverted Turn The Trilled Turn The Double Appoggiatura The Slide The Arpeggio Improvised Ornamentation Viii. Omixed Meterso and Dotted Rhythms Mixed Meters The Theory Application of The Theory IX. Choice of Tempo Elements in Tempo Choice Interaction of Meter, Note Values, and Tempo Headings Practical Results of These Customs Additional Elements in Tempo Choice The Basic Tempo Groups Contemporary Descriptions Which Was The Slowest Tempo? Diminutive Terms, Andante and Andantino The Changing Allegro The Meaning of Assai Increasing Individualization of Tempo The Metronome Beethoven and The Metronome Problems Related to Beethovenos Metronomizations Universal Problems of Metronomization The Ohammerklaviero Sonata Six Metronomizations of Beethovenos Sonatas The Haslinger Gesamtausgabe, Czerny and Moscheles as Metronomizers The Gesamtausgabe and Czernyos Other Metronomizations Compared Tempo Trends in Europe Czernyos Metronomizations of The 1840s and 1850s Moschelesos Metronomizations, Comparison With Czernyos Conclusion Fast and Omoderateo Minuets Beethovenos Omoderateo Minuets, His Metronomizations, Extrapolated Tempos, and Present Practice Extrapolation of Other Tempos For Beethoven For Clementi Appendix A, Theoretical Tempos of Quantz and Turk Appendix B, Six Sets of Metronomizations for Beethovenos Piano Sonatas X. Flexibility of Rhythm and Tempo Introduction Rhetorical Accentuation by Agogic Means Agogic Accentuation of Notes Rhetorical Rests The Fermata Ritardando and Accelerando Sectional Change of Mood and Tempo Eighteenth-centry Tempo Rubato Freely Shifting Contrametric Rubato Contrametric Rubato by Uniform Displacement Contrametric Rubato in The Piano Works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven Descriptions of Contrametric Rubato in French Tutors Tempo Flexibility as Tempo Rubato Early Evidence of Agogic Rubato Agogic Rubato in The Piano Works of Haydn, Mozart, and Clementi Agogic Rubato in The Piano Works of Beethovenos Piano Music XI. Performing Beethovenos Bagatelle Op. 126, No. 5 Use of The Instrument Dynamics and Accentuation Slurs, Articulation, and Fingering Pedaling Tempo Choice and Tempo Flexibility Repeat of The Middle Section Critical Report Notes Selected Bibliography Index Plates AND Charts Plate I Two Fortepianos Played for This Study Plate II Excerpt From The Holograph of Beethovenos Sonata Op. 53, Rondo Plate III Excerpt From The Holograph of Beethovenos Sonata Op. 111/ii Plate IV Excerpt From The Holograph of Beethovenos Sonata Op. 26/i, Var. 2 Plate V Ludwig van Beethoven, Bagatelle in G Major, Op. 126, No. 5, First Edition Chart I Apparent Uses of The Damper Pedal or Knee Lever in The Classic Period Chart II Likely Choice of Touch for Harpsichord, Clavichord, and Fortepiano Music Until About 1790 Chart III Comparison of Four Metronomizations of Beethovenos Piano Sonatas.