DONINGTON, Robert

The interpretation of Early Music. New revised edition.
Estados Unidos, 1963, 1965, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1989, 1992. 776 pp. Encuadernación rústica. Idioma: inglés.

ROBERT DONINGTON: The interpretation of Early Music. New revised edition.

 

 

CONTENTS:

 

INTRODUCTION: New Thinking on Early Interpretation:

 

            Our Changing Attitude

 

            A Literary Reincarnation

 

            The Changing Environment of Early Interpretation

 

            The Construction and Function of this Present Book

 

            How Controversial is Early Interpretation?

 

            The Introductory Chapters: Another Kind of Controversy?

 

            The Select Bibliography

 

            The Complementary Function of the Smaller Book

 

            Prospects for Authenticity

 

            Two Underlying Assumptions Reconsidered

 

            The Assumption Concerning Historical Authenticity

 

            The Assumption Concerning Necessary Compromise

 

            Authenticity and Personality

 

            Morality or Artistry?

 

            A Topical Issue of Principle

 

            A Blend of Personalities

 

            Early Music in the Here and Now

 

            Authenticity in Early Opera

 

            Early Opera an Extreme though not a Special Case

 

            Combining Musicianship and Musicology

 

            The Musicological Contribution

 

            Flexibility a Part of Authenticity

 

            Keeping Within the Implications of the Music

 

            Past and Present

 

            A Problem of Projection

 

            Bringing out the Tragic Implications

 

            The Robust Aspect of Baroque Opera

 

            The Continuo Accompaniment

 

            Different Varieties of Continuo Accompaniment

 

            What to Give to the Continuo Instruments

 

            Present and Future

 

            Responding to the Timeless Essence

 

            Bodying Out the Music

 

            Two Working Rules for Congruous Realisation

 

            The Shape of Things to Come

 

 

BOOK ONE: STYLE

 

            The Approach to Early Music

 

            Preview of and `Early' Style

 

            The Element of Passion in Early Music

 

            The Element of Serenity in Early Music

 

            Reconciling the Passion with the Serenity

 

            The Interplay of Styles

 

            A Basic Baroque Problem

 

            The Factor of Date

 

            The Factor of Nationality: Main Currents

 

            The Factor of Nationality: Musical Effects

 

            The Factor of Purpose Cutting Across both Time and Place

 

            The Galant Style

 

            The Transition to the Classical Period

 

            Music as Expression

 

            The Theory of Affects

 

            The Factor of Technique

 

            Differences of Amateur Standard

 

            Differences of Professional Standard

 

            The Factor of Taste

 

 

BOOK TWO: THE NOTES

PART ONE: ACCIDENTALS

 

            Accidentals in Early Music

 

            Mode and Key

 

            Musica Ficta---`Feigned Music'

 

            The Hexachord

 

            Unfamiliar Chromatic Signs

 

            Unfamiliar Modal Signatures

 

            Unfamiliar Key Signatures

 

            Written and Unwritten Accidentals

 

            Interpreting Written Accidentals

 

            Early Accidentals Apply Basically to Single Notes

 

            Effect of the Bar-line on Accidentals

 

            Effect of the Hexachord on Accidentals

 

            Effect of Repetition on Accidentals

 

            Accidentals Sometimes Retrospective

 

            Accidentals in Figured Bass

 

            Adding Unwritten Accidentals

 

            Unwritten Accidentals for Necessity and Beauty

 

            Correcting Imperfect Intervals

 

            The Diminished or Augmented Octave Clash

 

            The Picardy Third

 

            The Leading-note Principle

 

            The Leading-note Itself

 

            The `Double Leading-note'

 

            The `Landini Cadence'

 

            Sharp Mediants Assumed Next to Sharp Leading-notes

 

            Accidentals Suggested by the Performer's Taste

 

            Different `Musica Ficta' Shown in Different Tablatures of the Same Piece

 

 

PART TWO: EMBELLISHMENT

 

            The Place of Embellishment

 

            The Performer's Share in the Figuration

 

            The Primary Argument about Embellishment Itself

 

            The Secondary Argument about Performer's Embellishments

 

            All Ornamental Figuration to be Taken Lightly

 

            Effect of Omitting Obligatory Ornamentation

 

            Some Early Terms for Embellishment

 

            Solution of Ex. 20

 

            Sixteenth-Century Ornamentation

 

            Sixteenth-Century Ornamentation a Melodic Art

 

            Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries

 

            The Later Sixteenth Century

 

            Ornamenting Polyphonic Works Today

 

            Early Baroque Ornamentation

 

            Early Baroque Ornamentation Still Mainly Melodic

 

            Vocal Ornamentation in Early Baroque Music

 

            Instrumental Ornamentation in Early Baroque Music

 

            Later Baroque Ornamentation

 

            Later Baroque Ornamentation Harmonic as well as Melodic

 

            Vocal Ornamentation in Later Baroque Music

 

            Instrumental Ornamentation in Later Baroque Music

 

            Concerted Ornamentation in Chamber and Orchestral Music

 

            National Differences in Embellishment

 

            General Advice

 

            Post-Baroque Ornamentation

 

            The Declining Importance of Free Ornamentation

 

            The Cadenza

 

            The Typical Baroque Cadenza an Elaboration of a Close

 

            The Later Cadenza Part of the Structure of the Movement

 

            Entire Movements Replaced by Cadenza-like Improvisation

 

            The Style of Baroque Cadenzas

 

            Ornaments

 

            The Proliferation of Ornaments in Baroque Music

 

            Some Working Rules for Baroque Ornaments

 

            Three Primary Functions Served by Baroque Ornaments

 

            The Main Baroque Ornaments Grouped by Families

 

            A (i): The Appoggiatura Proper

 

            What the Name Appoggiatura Implies

 

            The Movement of Appoggiaturas

 

            All true Appoggiaturas take the Beat

 

            All true Appoggiaturas are Joined to the Ensuing but not to the Previous Note

 

            The Early Baroque Appoggiatura

 

            The Long Appoggiatura

 

            The Function of the Long Appoggiatura Primarily Harmonic

 

            The Short Appoggiatura

 

            Where to Introduce Unwritten Appoggiaturas

 

            Appoggiaturas in Recitative

 

            The Post-Baroque Appoggiatura

 

            A (ii): The Double Appoggiatura

 

            What the Name Double Appoggiatura Implies

 

            Varieties of Double Appoggiatura

 

            The Post-Baroque Double Appoggiatura

 

            A (iii): The Slide

 

            What the Name Slide Implies

 

            Varieties of Slide

 

            Post-Baroque Slides

 

            A (iv): The Acciaccatura

 

            What the Name Acciaccatura Implies

 

            The Simultaneous Acciaccatura

 

            The Passing Acciaccatura

 

            The Post-Baroque Acciaccatura

 

            A (v): The Passing Appoggiatura

 

            What the Name Passing Appoggiatura Implies

 

            Evidence for the Passing Appoggiatura

 

            Opposition to the Passing Appoggiatura

 

            B (i): Tremolo and B (ii): Vibrato

 

            What the Names Tremolo and Vibrato Imply

 

            The Vocal Tremolo

 

            Instrumental Tremolo

 

            Vibrato on Instruments

 

            B (iii): The Trill

 

            What the Name Trill Implies

 

            Pre-Baroque and Early Baroque Trills

 

            Baroque Trills of the Main Period

 

            The Preparation of Baroque Trills

 

            The Speed of Baroque Trills

 

            The Termination of Baroque Trills

 

            The So-called `Corelli Clash' Resolved by the Conventional Trill?

 

            Half-trills

 

            Continuous Trills

 

            The Ribattuta

 

            The Post-Baroque Trill

 

            B (iv): The Mordent

 

            What the Name Mordent Implies

 

            Single, Double and Continued Mordents

 

            The Inverted Mordent

 

            The Position of Mordents

 

            Pre-Baroque Mordents

 

            Baroque Mordents

 

            Diatonic and Chromatic Mordents

 

            The Preparation of Mordents

 

            The Speed of Mordents

 

            The Termination of Mordents

 

            The Post-Baroque Mordent

 

            C (i): Passing Notes and C (ii): Changing Notes

 

            Which Ornaments are here Classed as Passing Notes

 

            The Passing Note Proper

 

            The Tirata

 

            Which Ornaments are here Classed as Changing Notes

 

            The Note of Anticipation

 

            The Springer

 

            The Groppo

 

            Post-Baroque Passing and Changing Notes

 

            C (iii): The Turn

 

            What the Name Turn Implies

 

            The Accented Turn

 

            The Unaccented Turn

 

            Interpretation of Turns

 

            C (iv): Broken Chords, C (v): Broken Notes and C (vi): Broken Time

 

            In What Respect the Broken Chord is an Ornament

 

            The Origins of the Broken Chord in Pre-Baroque Music

 

            The Broken Chord as an Ornament in Baroque Music

 

            The Broken Chord in Post-Baroque Music

 

            The Broken Note Treated as an Ornament

 

            Broken Time Treated as an Ornament

 

            D. Compound Ornaments

 

            What is Meant by the Term Compound Ornament

 

            Combinations with the Appoggiatura

 

            Combinations with the Trill or Turn

 

 

PART THREE: ACCOMPANIMENT

 

            Figured Bass

 

            Impromptu Accompaniment

 

            The General Character of Figured Bass

 

            The Figuring

 

            Unfigured Basses

 

            The Signs Used in Figured Bass

 

            The Position of the Figures

 

            Perfect Triads (Common Chords)

 

            Diminished Triads

 

            Augmented Triads

 

            Six-Three Chords (Chords of the Sixth)

 

            Six-Four Chords

 

            Chords of the Augmented Sixth

 

            Chords of the Seventh

 

            Six-Five Chords

 

            Four-Three Chords

 

            Four-Two Chords

 

            `Passing Notes' in the Bass

 

            Going Beyond the Figures

 

            What the Figures Show

 

            Departing from the Figures

 

            Departing from the Bass

 

            Accommodating Harmonic Ornaments

 

            Adding Accented and Unaccented Passing Notes

 

            The Texture of the Part

 

            The Importance of Texture in a Good Accompaniment

 

            No Accompaniment (`Senza Cembalo', etc.)

 

            Unharmonised Accompaniment (`Tasto Solo'; `All' unisono')

 

            How Thick the Accompaniment Should Be

 

            How Strict the Accompaniment Should Be

 

            The Filled-in Accompaniment

 

            How the Accompaniment Should be Spaced

 

            How High and How Low the Accompaniment Should Go

 

            Texture Further to be Considered in the following Chapter

 

            The Structure of the Part

 

            The Structural Aspect of the Accompaniment

 

            How Smooth the Accompaniment Should Be

 

            How the Smooth Accompaniment may be Broken

 

            The Broken Accompaniment in Recitative

 

            How Far the Accompaniment Should Double the Existing Melody

 

            How Far the Accompaniment Should Possess an Independent Melodic Interest

 

            How Contrapuntal the Accompaniment Should Be

 

            Instruments of Accompaniment

 

            Early Baroque Instruments of Accompaniment

 

            Supporting the Harmonic Accompaniment with a Melodic Bass Instrument

 

            Gamba or Cello

 

            Adding a Double-bass

 

            Other Effects of Sharing Responsibility for the Accompaniment

 

            The Choice of Harmonic Instrument

 

            The Good Accompanist

 

            What Makes a Good Accompanist

 

            Accompanying Recitative

 

            Accompaniment as Composition

 

BOOK THREE: THE EXPRESSION

PART ONE: GENERAL

            Expression in Early Music

 

            Expression a Spontaneous Impulse

 

            Repeats and Omissions

 

            Repeats and Omissions within the Performer's Option

 

            Regular Repeat Signs a Baroque Development

 

            Repeats in Dances

 

            Repeats in Sectional Music

 

            Varied Repeats

 

            Omitting Movements or Sections

 

 

PART TWO: TEMPO

 

            Tempo in Early Music

 

            Tempo a Variable Quantity

 

            Early Tempos Only to be Judged by Good Musicianship

 

            J. S. Bach's Tempos

 

            Time-Words

 

            Time-Words Imply Both Mood and Tempo

 

            Early Baroque Time-Words

 

            Later Baroque Time-Words

 

            Metronome Equivalents for Time-Words

 

            Dance Tempos

 

            Dance-Titles as Guides to Tempo

 

            The Almain (Allemande, etc.)

 

            The Ayre

 

            The Brawl (Branle, Brando, etc.)

 

            The Bourree

 

            The Canaries

 

            The Courante (Coranto, etc.)

 

            The Chaconne

 

            The Entree

 

            The Fury

 

            The Galliard (Saltarello, Cinq-pas, etc.)

 

            The Gavotte

 

            The Hornpipe

 

            The Jig (Gigue, etc.)

 

            The Loure

 

            The March

 

            The Minuet

 

            The Musette

 

            The Passacaille (Passacaglia)

 

            The Passepied (Paspy)

 

            The Pavan

 

            The Rigaudon (Rigadoon)

 

            The Rondeau (Rondo)

 

            The Saraband

 

            The Tambourin

 

            The Volta

 

            Metronome Equivalents for Dance Tempos

 

            Time-Signatures

 

            Origin of Our Time-Signatures in Proportional Notation

 

            The Fundamental Confusion between Measure and Tempo

 

            The Subsidiary Confusion over Time-Signatures in the Form of Fractions

 

            Contradictory Uses of C and ¢, etc.

 

            Time-Signatures in Triple Time

 

            Discrepant Time-Signatures

 

            Concurrent Time-Signatures

 

            Baroque Time-Signatures in Practice

 

            Pulse

 

            Pulse Not Deliberately Made Audible

 

            The Four-time Pulse and the Two-time Pulse

 

            The Terms `Alla Breve' and `Alla Capella', etc.

 

            The `Alla Breve' in Practice

 

            The Hemiola

 

            Variations of Tempo

 

            The Need for Expressive Flexibility in Baroque Tempo

 

            Flexibility of Tempo in Unmeasured and Measured Preludes

 

            Flexibility of Tempo in the Monodic Style, etc.

 

            Flexibility of Tempo in Recitative

 

            Flexibility of Tempo in Baroque Music Generally

 

            Changes of Tempo between Sections, etc.

 

            Variations of Tempo within the Passage

 

            Borrowed Time

 

            Stolen Time

 

            Rallentandos

 

 

PART THREE: RHYTHM

 

            Rhythm in Early Music

 

            Flexibility the Key to Early Rhythm

 

            Rhythms Left Entirely to the Performer

 

            Rhythms Left Partly to the Performer

 

            Rhythms Loosely Notated for Mere Convenience

 

            Note-Values

 

            Methods of Showing Different Note-values in Mensural (Proportional) Notation

 

            Baroque and Modern Methods of Showing Different Note-values

 

            Arbitrary Note-values at the Ends of Phrases, etc.

 

            A Conventional Mis-notation in Recitative

 

            Dotted Notes

 

            The Baroque Dot a Variable Symbol

 

            What Baroque Notes are `Over-dotted'

 

            `Over-dotting' Itself Variable in Extent

 

            Baroque Instructions for Dotted Notes

 

            Dots as Silence of Articulation

 

            General Baroque Preference for the Variable Dot

 

            Post-Baroque `Over-dotting'

 

            Other Sharpened Rhythms

 

            The Piquant Contrasts of French Overture Style

 

            Rests Prolonged before Dotted Figures, etc.

 

            Inequality

 

            Inequality an Aspect of Rhythmic Freedom

 

            Which Notes Should be Made Unequal

 

            The Lilting Rhythm (Lourer)

 

            The Snapped Rhythm (Couler)

 

            Inequality in Pre-Baroque Music

 

            Inequality in Early Baroque Music

 

            Inequality in Later Baroque Music

 

            How Widely Ought Inequality to be Applied?

 

            Post-Baroque Inequality

 

            Triplet Rhythm

 

            Two Against Three not a Normal Baroque Rhythm

 

            Preliminary Notes in Triplet Rhythm

 

            The Triplet Convention in the Post-Baroque Period

 

PART FOUR: PUNCTUATION

            Phrasing

 

            Phrasing must be Audible

 

            Phrasing Signs

 

            Phrasing Left to the Performer

 

            Articulation

 

            Grouping by Ligatures

 

            Words of Articulation

 

            Signs of Articulation

 

            Articulation Implied by Keyboard Fingering

 

            Articulation Implied by Bowings

 

            Articulation Left to the Performer

 

            Baroque `Ordinary Movement' Somewhat Articulate

 

PART FIVE: DYNAMICS

            Volume

 

            Fitting the Volume to the Music

 

            Words of Volume

 

            Signs of Volume

 

            Range and Flexibility of Early Dynamics

 

            Louds and Softs

 

            Crescendos and Diminuendos

 

            The `Messa di Voce'

 

            The Finer Shadings

 

            Balance

 

            Suggestions for Balance shown in Notation

 

            Written Indications of Balance

 

            Balance Left to the Performer

 

            Accentuation

 

            Words Suggesting Accentuation

 

            Accentuation Suggested by the Music

 

            The Agogic Accent

 

            The Weight Accent

 

            The Sforzando

 

            The Attack Accent

 

BOOK FOUR: INSTRUMENTS

            Instruments in Early Music

 

            Music and its Instruments

 

            Substitutions Must be as Suitable as Possible

 

            Early Technique Should be Taken Into Account

 

            Pitch

 

            The Effect of Pitch on Performance

 

            Actual Pitch and Nominal Pitch

 

            Pitches in Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Music

 

            Pitches in Music of the Main Baroque Period

 

            Pitches in Post-Baroque Music

 

            Pitch in Practice

 

            Temperament

 

            Why Temperament is Necessary

 

            Mean-Tone Temperament

 

            Modifications of Mean-Tone Temperament

 

            Equal Temperament

 

            Temperament in Practice

 

            The Voice

 

            The Italian `Bel Canto'

 

            Early Vocal Technique

 

            The Trill

 

            The Vibrato

 

            The Portamento

 

            The Necessary Element of Chest Voice

 

            The Castrato Voice

 

            The Male Alto and the High and Low Counter-tenor

 

            Underlay of the Words

 

            A Declamatory Edge to the Articulation

 

            Polyphonic Music also Declamatory

 

            The White Voice

 

            The Viols

 

            The Family of Viols

 

            The Viols in Consort

 

            The Gamba, etc., as Soloist

 

            The Gamba as a Continuo Bass

 

            The Cellamba

 

            The Purpose of the Frets

 

            The Gamba in the Post-Baroque Period

 

            The Violins

 

            A Style of Violin-playing for Baroque Music

 

            The Fittings of the Baroque Violin

 

            The Baroque Violin Bow

 

            The Use of Gut Strings

 

            Holding the Violin, etc.

 

            Holding the Bow

 

            Left-hand Technique

 

            Right-hand Technique

 

            Chords and Polyphony on the Violin, etc.

 

            The Double-bass

 

            Plucked Instruments

 

            The Lute

 

            The Vihuela

 

            The Guitar

 

            The Cittern

 

            The Harp

 

            The Wind Department

 

            The Changed Character of Many Wind Instruments

 

            How Efficient are Early Wind Instruments?

 

            Breathing

 

            Tonguing

 

            Early Wind Instruments in Practice

 

            Flutes

 

            Embouchure and Fipple

 

            Transverse Flutes

 

            The Recorders

 

            Pipe and Tabor

 

            Reeds

 

            The Influence of Reeds and Bore

 

            The Shawms

 

            The Oboe

 

            The Bassoon

 

            The Crumhorn (Cromorne)

 

            The Clarinet

 

            Brass

 

            Brass Cylindrical and Conical, Narrow and Broad

 

            The Cornetto

 

            The Serpent

 

            The Bugles (Tubas, etc.)

 

            The Horn

 

            The Trombone

 

            The Trumpet

 

            Percussion

 

            Military, Dance and Orchestral Percussion

 

            The Kettledrum for Orchestral Music

 

            The Tabor, etc., for Dancing

 

            Turkish Music: The Triangle, Cymbals, etc.

 

            Keyboards

 

            The Harpsichord

 

            The Clavichord

 

            The Piano

 

            The Organ

 

            Fingering

 

            Choirs and Orchestras

 

            Late Renaissance and Early Baroque Ensembles

 

            The Standard Baroque Foundation of Strings

 

            The Unstandardised Wind

 

            The Indispensable Continuo

 

            The Conductor

 

            Some Typical Baroque Choirs and Orchestras

 

            Acknowledgements and Conclusion

 

            Previous Acknowledgements

 

            Present Acknowledgements

 

            Conclusion

 

APPENDICES

            I. Ligatures

 

            II. Figured Bass: Three Realisations

 

            III. Ornamentation

 

            IV. Orchestral Improvisation

 

            V. Responsibility for Accidentals

 

            1. Accidentals Still a Baroque Problem

 

            2. Hexachordally Prospective Accidentals

 

            3. Retrospective Accidentals

 

            4. Changing Conventions for Later Baroque Accidentals

 

            5. Accidentals in Modern Editions

 

            6. A Retrospective Late-Comer

 

            VI. New Thinking on Ornaments

 

            1. Frederick Neumann's Contribution

 

            2. Obligatory Ornaments Never Anticipate the Beat

 

            3. The Appoggiatura by Definition and Function Accented

 

            4. The Cadential Trill Likewise Defined as Accented

 

            5. The Preparation of the Baroque Trill

 

            6. Tosi, Galliard and Agricola on the Baroque Trill

 

            7. Jean Rousseau and the French Vocal School on the Baroque Trill

 

            8. The Upper-Note Habit in Late Baroque Trills

 

            9. The Hard Core of Baroque Ornaments Relatively Simple

 

            10. How Grammatical have Baroque Ornaments to Be?

 

            11. When Consecutive Parallel Fifths are Correct

 

            12. Ornaments Not to be Falsified for the Sake of Grammatical Correctness

 

            13. Clashes of Ornaments to be Taken Boldly

 

            14. Doing the Obvious Thing with Ornaments

 

            VII. Tempo and Rhythm

 

            1. Flexibility in Declamatory Styles

 

            2. Time-Signatures in French Recitative

 

            3. Tactus as Duration and Metre as Rhythm

 

            4. Black and White Notations as Remnants of Coloration

 

            5. Telescoped Cadences in Recitative

 

            VIII. A Footnote to Inequality

 

            IX. Ornamentation in the Reciting Style

 

Select Bibliography

Index of Ornaments (Signs)

General Index